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Glossary A-C

HandBound’s 18thCent Glossary of Clothing

Eighteenth Century Terms of Fashion:

This glossary is based on an amalgamation between the historians: Iris Brooke, C and P Cunnington (and also Beard), Norah Waugh, James Laver, R.Wilcox, Liza Picard, Maureen Waller, Nancy Bradfield, Anne Buck and of course, the wonderful Janet Arnold. It also uses Historical sources such as the Social Researchers Diderot and Garsault.

This glossary only covers British Fashions. The following information might not be relevant to outside of the UK:  French and American and Continental Fashion might differ drastically.


APRON – Although, initially used as a protective layer, this item of wear’s
Mrs and Mr Hill - 1750-51 by Arthur Devis HandBound Glossary as an example of a fashionable apron, HandBound Glossary of 18th century Fashionn terms, history of aprons, long white fahsionable aprons, georgian costume research, histroical costume research, 18th c accessories, images of 17000's costume, main use during the 1700’s was as a Fashionable garment. The Fashionable aprons were ‘without bibs’ (Cunnington’s) and from early 1700’s a fine white gauze apron can be seen in portraits. This fashion carries on right into the late 1700’s. Although these aprons were immensely fashionable, they were still considered a from of Undress and the famous story of Beau Nash asking the Duchess of Queensbury to remove her apron was not unprecedented. The apron was also not approved of at Court. Even though the humble apron had been painted in many portraits for most of the century,it was only in 1769 that it seems aprons were allowed to be worn in front of the monarch. As Buck quotes ‘Ly Charlotte told me that the Queen wears an english night gown and a white apron, and had ordered her to do the same: ’tis a dress his Majesty likes: formerly Nobody could appear before the Royal Family with a white apron.’

They seem to disappear from adult portraiture in the latter part of the 1770’s after a sudden bout of being slightly shortened (see image of the Lady here), although they then remain on the younger girls for a time, which prolonged their existence.
The short, embroidered Apron mainly appears between the 1730’s and 40’s (see below).

embroidered apron 1730-40 image in HandBound Glossary, research in eighteenth century clothing, terms of 18th century fashion, accessories in georgian times

Functional Aprons can be seen in all sorts of paintings of the working class and were worn by both men and women. Cunnington ’64 states that the term ‘Blue aproned men was applied to tradesmen from 16th cent to 18th cent’ and is a possible origin of our phrase ‘blue collar workers’. The Cunnington’s also state that ‘these aprons were short or long and usually had bibs and pockets.’ For an example of a functional apron please see Chardin’s  ‘The Attentive Nurse’ further down at the ‘Bedgown’ section.

BEAVER: According to Cunnington and Beard in 1960 this term applied to ‘padded rolls acting as bustles worn ‘under the skirts of gown at their setting on at the bodies, which raised up the skirt and that place to what breadth the wearer pleaseth and as the fashion is.’’  – Holme Armourie in the late 1680’s.

BEDGOWN: Worn by both sexes, this gown was a loose-sleeved and baggy

form of dress worn mainly for negligee and comfort. Cunnington and Beard just have it down as an Eighteenth century term with no particular dates attached. For an example of the Bedgown please see the image here by Grueze – painted in 1747. Brooke doesn’t seem to ever use the term but there are hundreds of images of the ‘bedgown’ throughout portraiture and paintings. Grueze’s painting here is a class example. To add to the Cunnington’s term of ‘negligee and comfort’ we’d like to put in that it seemed to have also been worn by many poorer and lower classes as a possible cheaper gown option and also probably a little more practical

BODKIN: A long pin used in hairdressing.

BOISSON: Fashionable in the 1780’s, this was a short cloak with hood and was worn for undress. (Cunnington and Beard ’60).

BONNET: Even though bonnets and caps are still words that are used today it is worth describing them in the terms the historicans use. In 1726 Bernard Lens did a little sketch book shpwing the various wigs and caps and hair styles that were worn at court for that year. The word ‘bonnet’ was used to describe them (see Brooke’s Dress and Undress, p60) but they are much more in the modern mind ‘Caps’. Brooke writes, referring to Bernard Lens that this sketch book ‘shows the interesting development of the bonnet at the beginning of the century into the little cap or ‘mob’ of a later date.

It does appear that, for a while at any rate , the term was pretty inter-changeable. However, R.Wilcox in 1945 wrote that ‘After the middle of the century, the cap grew in size, in the ‘seventies becoming  a large bonnet, “chapeau-bonnette” the French name. This is the first time that the term ‘bonnet’ was applied to feminine attire’ which completely contrasts Brooke.

The various styles would also be a whole study in itself. Cunnington and Beard describe the word to mean ‘small head covering’. In the late eighteenth century and early 1800’s, the distinction between the two seemed to become clearer as the Bonnet developed into a much firmer and more controlled shape than that of the cap and by the 1800’s it had taken on the form of what we now think more of as a Bonnet (see image for example).

BOOT CUFF: This is a ‘deep, closed, turned back cuff to a man’s coat’ which

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came upto the elbow. It’s largeness was in the width at the top and the depth of the cuff – where the lines is that blends a normal large grown-on cuff to a Boot cuff we don’t know but it’s good to know that the Cunnington’s describe it as ‘frequently’ reaching to the elbow (p.21 – Dictionary of English Costume) . Perhahs because of it’s length and therefore the liklihood of it slowly drooping back down the arm, but Boot Cuffs tend to have covered buttons along the top edge/front arm of the Cuff. Henry Fielding suggests it was designed for the receiving of stolen goods.

BOOT GARTERS: Similar to the standard garter, this was a strap that held the boot in place.

BOSOM FLOWERS: You can see this fashion in some of the paintings and

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portraits of the
time. These could be artificial flowers or real, but originated from the idea of nose-gays. The lady in pink in the centre, in Francis Hayman’s Painting here, wears one. They were apparantly a full dress item but were also worn by the Macaroni’s in their day dress. (1760’s to 70’s).

BOX COAT: (MALE) Now a classic look to any historical play or film, these caped coats first came into fashion

during the late Eighteenth Century and continued in to the late 1800’s.
There were also called Coachman’s Cloaks or Great Coats. The capes would often be in several layers.

BREAST OR BOSOM KNOT: (FEMALE) A bow or bunch of

Portrait of MDM Sorquainville by Perronneau 1749 - costume in the mid 18th century, furbellows and ribbons - decoration in dress, eighteenth century costume research, details in fashion and glossary of the terms by handBound Costumes, Made to measure Historical Costumes, Bespoke replica reenactment clothin
ribbons that was worn at the top of the
bodice. These were often purchased singularly or in a ‘suit of knots’ where the bows could
be placed at the sleeves, hair or girdle and could all match. They were sewn on or pinned. Please see Perronneau’s portrait of Madamne de Sorquainville from 1747 for an example of ‘a ‘suit of knots’.

BREECHES: (MALE) Firstly: they were, for many years, the main leg-wear for the man’s wardrobe. The only other leg-wear item that seems to have been worn was the sailor’s loose slacks.
Breeches were worn as trousers are now – universally by all men as their main garment for the legs. They came with either a buttoned fly or as split-falls and, possibly in the poorest of classes, just a drawstring top with a placket at the

18th century menswear - bespoke costumes made to measure
front. Cunnington and Beard say that the button fly was commonest while the waistcoats were long but as the waistcoats began to rise so that the front
of the breeches was seen; and this was then when the Split falls came into fashion. They also point out that the introduction of braces changed the pattern cutting of these breeches.
Again, this is the same as trousers today. Trousers designed to be worn with braces are cut easier and looser at the waist than those that rely on the tightness of the waist to hold the garment up.
Also, another use for Breeches, mentioned by Brooke is the fact that women did, atleast in one case wear them as underwear. A poem from 1710 called ‘On Hoops and High Heels’ mentions this use as Brooke points out on page 59 of her book ‘Dress and Undress’.

BREECHING: This is a term that has a lot more historical depth to it than we’ve really studied. It basically means when a boy or lad puts aside the more childish clothing (and possibly even skirts) to receive his first pair of breeches. J.Styles uses this term to comment on the Latham family and the entrance of their son’s breeches into the accounts as when he was probably ‘breeched’. Interestingly enough, Elizabeth Gaskell mentions it in her novel ‘My Lady Ludlow’, and although she is not a contemporary of the time, she was writing in the mid 1800’s and therefore only 50 years later or less from such a tradition. In her description it was in an Upper class family and the ‘Breeching’ also coincided with the time that the lad had his hair shaved and began wearing his first wig.This ‘Breeching’ in Gaskell’s case was relatively late in the boys development and it was considered the moment he became a man.However the majority of contemporary accounts – although not giving an exact age, do appear that the boys were much younger, maybe as young as 5. I think initially there is a lot more research needing doing, let’s just leave it at that!

BRIDLES or KISSING STRINGS: These were just the stings that tied mob caps under the chin but obviously had such an everyday normality about them that they were so affectionately termed.

BRUNSWICK GOWN or SACK GERMAN GOWN: 1760-80. This item was a

brunswick gowns - eighteenth century dress - HandBound Costumes - made to measure Historical Clothing
sack-back gown but with a button front and long sleeves, which are unusual features for sack back gowns. These long sleeves could still be worn with the ruffles that most famously get worn with Sack Back Gowns and they would still be worn at their usual place above the elbow so that it looked like the long sleeve came out from under them This gown was most commonly used for travelling. (Cunnington’s)
BUCKSKIN: This was a soft, very pliable, beige coloured leather, mostly used for breeches or gloves.

BUSK: A rular like piece of wood or bone that was inserted down the front or

busks, eighteenth century accesories - forms of dress - historical clothing - corsets and stays - underwear
stays for extra rigidity. They were re-moveable and often decorated. The stays had a ‘BUSK SHEATH’ which was the channel prepared for the busks and where they could be pushed down the centre front. Some busks weren’t just these rular like shapes but could be upto ¾” deep and in a triangular shape at the bottom end of the busk, then petering upto a slighter shape at the top. These were often covered in fabric and sewn into place on the stays. This was most popular during the 40’s (Brooke in her ‘Dress and Undress, p.83)  and all the corsets that we have seen in the Museum’s collections that have this very triangular front are from around this period – the only adaption to that is a Corset from the Arlaten Museum which has a very prominent front and is dated 1750-6o. There is also an example of the chunky busk in the Bath Fashion Musuem on one of the pair of stays we studied. Please see the blog page for an example of a large busk: handboundcostumes@blogspot.co.uk/p/blog-page_28.html
Busk also seem to be frequently used as presents from lovers as they were often decorated and carved with intitials or expressions of love.

BUTTONS: There are so many distinctive and important buttons that we have decided to put them under one sub-heading. These are as follows:

Basket weave Buttons - 18th century Costume - 18th c accesories– Basket Buttons: Buttons were a real tell-tale sign to your wealth and a lot of effort was put into them (A.Reynolds). Basket buttons were covered with a ‘basket effect’ weave of either thread, or metal. Mainly fashionable on men’s coats but could be use18th d death heads buttons, types of buttons in the 18th c, what does a death heads buttons look like, georgian buttonsd on Riding Habits in women’s fashions also.

– Death’s Head Buttons: 18th c.(M) Really we should put this under a ‘Button’ section – perhaps  we’ll try and do that at some point. The Cunnington’s describe as a ‘domed button covered with a thread of metal twist or mohair, forming a pattern of four quarters’. The image we’ve got for this is from a woman’s riding jacket we studied at the V&A and dated c.1750-59. This is not one of our images as we’re not allowed to use any of the ones we took during the study session but it is one we downloaded from their website: so it’s worth saying, this image has been used courtesy of the V&A museum.

under-breeches with dorset tread buttons, 18th c under clothes and buttons– Dorset Thread Buttons: The Cunnington’s state that this was a button that covered the years from the 18th c through to the 1830. These buttons were made on a brass wire ring covered with white cotton thread radiating from the centre and kept flat. This is the bit that we are interested in as we’ve seen this button on about 5 men’s shirts and a pair of Underbreeches. The Cunnington say that from the 1700s these type of buttons were used on underclothes.18th c cut-metal buttons for sale, replicated metla buttons, steel buttons for sale,

Metal Buttons: There are two types of metal buttons that we can talk about here. There are the actual metal buttons, as seen on late 18th C coats, and then there are the metal discs that get covered for the Covered Buttons. Essentially we shall class these types as ‘Covered Buttons’ , so we’re going to concentrate o the cut-metal versions. These were a real fad in the late 1700s for cut metal buttons – we’ve replicated some from a c.1760s Frock as seen in our Online Shop.


CALASH or CALECHE: This item of hat wear is the pram-like covers that Green Silk Calash Bonnet - 18th c headwear - costume research - Made to measure costumesfold up and down over the towering head dresses of the late eighteenth century. Rattan cane or boning was used as the skeleton with the dark silk (most commonly) covering it. Often Furbelows would trim the front.
The CARAVAN was a ‘small and early form of the Calash’. Apparantly the ‘caravan’ consisted of rounds of whalebone forming the body and that ‘at a touch threw down the face a kind of white sarcenet’.

(Female) The Cunnington’s just give the date for this particular item as: 1790’s and describe it as: A round gown of coloured muslin with a loose robe over it’. We’ve not been able to find any images of this as of yet but we will upload one once we do.

CAP:(Male and Female)
Before we get into the named varieties, we thought it’d be worth while just giving the definition from Brooke and the Cunnington’s Dictionary as we thought they were pretty good descriptions. Brooke says: ‘Apparantly at this date (1700-20) English ladies did not powder their hair. It was sufficient that they wore little caps of fine point lace or minunet or even blonde’ The Cunnington’s write: Male – ‘A small head-covering usually of soft material and often fitting more closely than a hat….The un-named Cap began in the 16th cent to imply social inferiority (as in the servant, apprentice or schoolboy)’ . Female: The Domestic Cap worn indoors dates from c.1500 and survived as such nearly to the end of the 19th century; usually as named varieties…’

So some named varieties are:

Bandore or Peak: A widows hood that curved to a point at the centre of the

 Lady Tyrell 1738 by jean-ettienne liotard - 18th century research - handboundcostumes - 18th century hats or headresse - georgian attire - Historircal fashion accessories
forehead with a black veil coming down from behind. 1700s – 1730’s. Now with the image here, we only think that the headress worn by Lady Tyrell is a Bandore Peak but we’re not sure. It fits the description upto the point of there being a veil down the back neck, which in the image she does not seem to have.However she does have a black veil-like looking thing draped over her arm.

– Butterfly cap: mainly during 1750’s to 60’s, Mrs Delaney mentions it in one of her letters and is literally as it describes. Cunnington and Beard describe it as: ‘A small lace cap wired into the form of a butterfly and worn perched above the forehead. Lappets and jewels and flower trimmings were sometimes added for court wear.’

Dormeuse Cap: the Cunnington’s describe this type of cap as ‘French’ and part of the ‘2nd

Eighteenth Century Stays - Who wore Stays - Mrs Seymour Fort by J.S Copley - 1776-1780 - HandBound Costumes - Georgian Clothing
half of 18th c. An indoor white day cap with a puffed up crown and edged on each side with deep falling flaps trimmed with lace and called ‘wings’; popularly known as ‘cheek wrappers’. these ‘wings’ curved back from the temples, leaving the forehead and front hair exposed. the crown was trimmed round the ribbon. the Dormeuse was sometimes tied under the chin. In the 1770’s the size greatly increased and the gable-shape was produced.” Which could also be the exact description of lappets but they do provide a drawing. (please see opposite) Wilcox writing in 1945 states that ‘another cap was the Dormeuse or ‘sleeping bonnet’, a cap with frills which hugged the cheeks and tied under the chin’.  Brooke mentions the word ‘dormeuse’ but it’s from an excerpt from a fashion description taken from 1734 and is mildly criticizing the low french fashions coming in and it follows: “they (the French) wear their stays extravagantly low, their sleeves very short and wide, petticoats short
Brooke's Drawing of a Cap - Headwear Terms for 18th c - Glossary of Eighteenth Century Fashion- HandBound
English ‘dormeuses’ and the girdle (waistline) not in the least peaked down…”. I’d just like to say that this is a most unhelpful quote as it neither describes what a ‘dormeuse’ is nor supports the Cunnington statement in it being ‘French’. But is is an actual quote and more must be done to find out it’s context and what the quote actually means. Our plan wasn’t to confuse you with this glossary but just to simply provide from various sources what the actual historians say about each item, so apologies if we seem to be contradicting ourselves. Just to add another drawing, Brooke does supply a drawing of what looks like a  ‘dormeuse’  though she does not title it as such but just calls it a ‘cap’ (please look left).

Mob Cap: According to Iris Brooke – ‘It was a word used to describe a bonnet, more often with lappets and edged with lace.’ She

(c) The National Trust for Scotland, Brodick Castle, Garden & Country Park; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation

also states that ‘The ‘mob’ seemingly so dear to theatrical productions, was not as generally worn as is supposed. Nor was it a circle of material gathered into a frill!’ (which is possibly a ‘cambric cap’). The Cunningtons kind of disagree with her description and draw a theatrical styled mob cap. Although they do say that ‘until 1750’ it was ‘bonnet- shaped with side lappets hanging loose or tied under the chin…’ which is the exact time that Iris Brooke is dealing with when she wrote that quote.

Ranelagh Mob Cap: mainly taken from R.Wilcox’s book ‘The Mode in Hats and Headdress’, Wilcox writes: ‘The “Ranelagh mob”, mobcap or just plain “mob” which it later became, with it’s deep hanging frill, originated in England, suggested by the cap worn by the market women. ‘Ranelagh’ is from Ranelagh Gardens, a smart place of amusement gotten up by Lord Ranelagh upon his estate.’ Many portraits and images contain this kind of ‘deep hanging frill’ type of cap, be it a ‘pinner’ as it is sometimes called, or ‘mob cap’ or ‘under cap’ (because it was worn under the hat). It’s hard to tell if they all mean vaguelly the same thing or if they were with specific differences that from the portraits can allude us.
Eighteenth Century Caps - Scotch Cap - Glengarry Hat - 18th century Historical Costume - HandBound

Scotch Cap (or Glengarry Cap): Quoting from Brooke again, she says that:

‘these Scotch caps were not necessarily plaid, though they were roughly of the Glengarry shape, with little ribbons hanging down behind.’

CAPE: Concentrating on the Eighteenth Century, this word came in from the previous centuries where it meant ‘a turned-down collar whether large or small’. Which is not essentially what we think of as a cape. However this garment grew into ‘a short shoulder-cloak’ which is where we get our interpretation of the garment.

CAPOT, CAPOTE: (Male): A loose coat (Funnily enough quoting from the Cunnington’s again) and they use a quote from 1775. ‘Wrapped in their thick Capots or loose coats’.

CAPUCHIN OR CAPUCHON: (Female) – this was a term that came from as early as the 16th century and was a ‘soft Eighteenth Century Bonnets - historical accessories - hats - caps - headwear - Georgian costume.hood worn out of doors’. The Capuchin is where we get out ‘Little red riding hood’ as one of the eighteenth century terms for this type of headwear was ‘Riding Hood (Cunnington’s p37). Iris Brooke also states that as the hair rose in height during the 60’s and 70’s so hats were discarded and ‘…caps and hoods, or capuchins were the only form of covering’.
But what did it look like?
Iris gives us a drawing and the Cunnington’s a description but it would be good to find more images.

CARACO: Female. Late 18th cent and early 19th. (Female). This was a thigh-length waisted jacket worn as the bodice part of a gown. Jacket is the key word caraco - 1780-9 - nat trust inv - HandBound 1348739 - eighteenth century caraco images, pet-en-lair, georgian short jacket, items of clothing in a georgians wardrobe, eighteenth century costume, 1700's costume. made to measure historical garments, bespoke 18th century costumes, here. It’s cut is much more similar to a gentleman’s coat – with the cone-shaped skirt section (the word skirt, here, being the word for the hip section of a jacket). It is often confused with the Pet-en-Lair. But the word ‘jacket’ would not be used to describe the ‘pet-en-lair’ as it is, in reality, just a short sack. There is another alternative to this view, however, and that is that they are the same item just either ends of the century and therefore with a different name. As the museums themselves use differing names it’s best to maybe label it as ‘unclear’.

CARDINAL: 18th and 19th cent – (Female) – ‘a three-quarter length hooded cloak usually of scarlet cloth’ (hence the word ‘Cardinal’ as the colour Cardinals wore was bright red) Red was a popular colour for cloaks and coats and there are numerous quotes of people travelling across England mentioning the locals in red cloaks.

CAUL: During the 18th century, this word could apparently be used to either describe the mesh that a wig was built upon or the soft centre crown of a bonnet or cap.

CERUSE:  Used by both sexes, this was a cosmetic that was used to whiten the face, initially made of lead. It’s interesting coz it could be easily confused with ‘cerise’. They may not have had that description of colour at this particular time.

CHEEK WRAPPERS: A charming term simply meaning the lappet style sides of a Dormeuse Cap or French night Cap – or the wide lappets that hung at the side and could be pinned under the chin (compared with the long, slim lappets that hung down at the back). Why do we always manage to take the romance out of such things?

CHEMISE/CAMIZ/KEMISE:  Apparently this was a term from the 14th century that was reintroduced from France towards the end part of the 18th Century. It’s a word we all recognise today and was a refined name for the shift or smock. Please see the entry for ‘Shift’ to see a description of this basic and most everyday under garment.

CHEMISE DRESS/GOWN: Female. The history of this item of clothing appears to have been designed and created by none other than Marie Antionette and apparently caused shock waves for it’s similarity and alignment with the Shift/Chemise. Underwear as outerwear was not something that ever happened in the 18th century. This gown was popular from 1780-1810

CHIGNON: Female. This is a term borrowed from France and used in the 2nd half of the century. It is used to describe the ‘mass of arranged hair’ at the back of the head. A Chignon Flottant is a direct quote from the 1790’s and is made up of loops and ringlets of hair (Cunningtons). The Cunngintons have drawn us an example but I think we can all also well imagine what is meant.

CHITTERLINGS: MaleThis is a great word and simply means the frills that were down the front of some shirts – think New Romantics and you’re somewhere there.

CLOGS: Male/Female. This type of shoe is pretty much what it means to us shoes with clogs - enlgish - 1710-30 - HandBound, 18th century shoe and footwear research, glossary of 18th century terms, what the georgians wore, now – essentially it is a wooden heeled shoe and because of the hard wearing nature and cheapness of this shoe, it also is a word that has connotations with the poor (see image below). During the
Knife Grinder - The Cries of Paris - 1737 - Richardson - HandBound Research, historical shoe research, clog images from teh 18th century, what the poor wore, Eighteenth Cenrtuy costume research, Glossary of 18th century contemporary costume terms 18th C. it could also mean a Patten (please see Patten) or the matching bottom part of a fashionable shoe that had a protective option. (Cunningtons) The image above here has been described by the museum of Bata as ‘Shoes with Clogs – 1710-30’ (see above)- the clogs being the adjoining bottom part that you can see the shoe standing on. The other image is from a series of illustrations done by Samuel Richardson entitled the Cries of Paris – this is the knife grinder and though the image is small you can see his bulky and wooden shoes.

COAT: Male and Female. For pure Historian confusion, the word ‘Coat’ could be used to describe the lady’s underskirt (Cunnington and Cunnington and also Ginsburg) which was also called and more commonly known as the ‘petticoat’.  This makes a puzzle of reading some of the 18th c. letters to know for sure which garment they are talking about. Happily they mostly use the term ‘petticoat’ but be warned: the landmines are out there and it’s worth being aware of the possibility of confusion. It is also the word to describe the garment for which it is still known for; that being the common coat or jacket. There are many examples of the word ‘coat’ being used for a gentleman’s jacket, one from 1742 explains: “My Lord C was in plain cloth…which was what it appeared to be a good, warm, clean, coat.”

It is important to put here that the word ‘Coat’ was the correct 18th c. term for the man’s fashionable jacket (or what we would now call a jacket – ‘coat’ in modern day terms is more likely to be the outdoor version). The word jacket was not used (seemingly) for the fashionable coat but only for the short, working man’s jacket – for more info plae.

Named Varieties of ‘Coats’:

Box Coat (please see under B)

Frock Coat (Please under F)

– Robe Coat (Please see under R)

Please go onto the next section of the Glossary to be able to read the other terms used during the 18th Century.

(or use the links below)

Glossary D-J